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Economic grid support services by wind and solar PV

A review of system needs, technology options, economic benefits and suitable market mechanisms


REserviceS was the first project to investigate wind and solar based grid support services at EU level. It provides technical and economic recommendations for the design of a European market for grid support services, as well as for future Network Codes within the Third Liberalisation Package.


The anticipated high shares of wind and solar PV in the European electricity system will require fundamental changes in the way transmission and distribution network operators use grid support services (GSS) from generators to manage network frequency, voltage and system restoration.

Research questions in this report address five themes:

  • System needs for GSS (frequency, voltage and system restoration) to develop when the shares of VAR-RES are very high;
  • Technical and economic issues for VAR-RES to provide the necessary services;
  • Economic benefits of large scale provision of services by VAR-RES;
  • Suitable market conditions and commercial frameworks;
  • Knowledge gaps and needs for R&D.
Electric City 2021